Bourchardon and Heckman discuss digital literature and the difference between digitised works and digital works (2012). Dandelion written by Galvin Scott Smith (2012) is a traditional text that has since been created into a digital work in the form of an app. The app allows the user to move through the book and follow the journey of a boy who is dealing with bullying with a range of functionality and experiences. Lamb labels Dandelion as transmedia story telling which has been enhanced for an iPad with the use of music and hyperlinks (Lamb, 2011). The app has been recommended for ages 4+ according to the rating on the Apple App Store (Apple, 2018).
Utilising Lamb’s transmedia story telling elements; texts may or may not be linear and all of the text may not be supplied in one form. Jenkin’s discusses the key components of transmedia story telling through seven key concepts (Jenkins, 2010). For the evaluation of Dandelion this evaluation framework will focus on the following key components:
- Immersion Vs Extractability; and
- World Building (Jenkins, 2010).
Immersion Vs Extractability refers to the ability for the immersion of the reader in the story line while the extractability refers to the ability for the reader to feel persuaded to purchase other aspects of the story in real life for example further apps or books (Jenkins, 2010). World building refers to the authors ability to build a world apart from the book, in this situation the application (Jenkins, 2010). While Lamb also discusses the various elements that may be included in transmedia story telling this evaluation will focus on the use of audio, video and animation (Lamb, 2011).
Additionally this analysis discusses the substitution, augmentation, modification and redefinition (SAMR) model as an integration of technology framework from a pedagogical point of view (Jude, Kajura, & Birevu, 2014). This analysis aims to discuss whether Dandelion is able to redefine the previous hard copy of the book or whether it is a substitution for using the book format.
When Jenkin’s discusses immersion it is through the lens of rich games which provide a story telling element (Jenkins, 2010). Dandelion provides game based elements while allowing the user to feel immersed in the experience of the text. The use of the handle to pull the reader through the story integrated with interactive elements enhances the experience for the user. Additionally, the extraction of real life merchandise which can be accessed through the store invites the reader to find and discover more (Jenkins, 2010). The ‘read to me text’ charged at an additional $1.49 would entice young readers while the opportunity to purchase merchandise such as iPad decals and flexi bracelets. While Jenkins discusses the use of additional prop material to support the teaching of transmedia texts this is not available for the text Dandelion.
Jenkin’s discusses world building through the ability for the reader to explore a text through the world of the reader but also the cultural geography of a place. Bullying is a cultural geography of our changing landscape in schools. Dandelion examines aspects of bullying through the text but also provides further links and assistance as you reach the end of the text. In a blog on resilience, Rosenthal explores the use of the text to explore bullying on a deeper level and build students’ coping capacity (Rosenthal, 2015).
Jacobs-Israel and Moorfield-Land pose the question with varying levels of technology being used within the classroom at what level does technology transform education (Jacobs-Israel & Moorefield-Lang, 2013)? If the Dandelion text was read simply the same way as it was within the text edition this would merely be a substitution of the text in a digital form. The diagram below illustrates the transformation process Peuntedura intended when discussing the transformation and digital storytelling within the SAMR model (Puentedura, 2010).
Dandelion reaches the augmentation stage of the model as it is yet to offer new experiences for students to be involved in such as designing their own text. The text takes students on a journey with space for interaction for example when you can blow the dandelions out throughout the text. For this text to be utilised further up the SAMR model it would require students to be involved with a task developing their knowledge further.
Dandelion provides elements of transmedia story telling and is illustrates some key concepts of Jenkins’ seven elements of transmedia story telling (Jenkins, 2010). It demonstrates key features of reader usability and shows a depth in usage and techniques Puentedura’s SAMR model for technology use within the classroom (Puentedura, 2010).
Apple. (2018). Dandelion. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/dandelion/id521903725?mt=8
Bourchardon, S., and Heckman, D. (2012). Digital manipulability and digital literature. Electronic Book Review. Retrieved from http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/heuristic
Jacobs-Israel, M., & Moorefield-Lang, H. (2013). Redefining technology in libraries and schools: AASL best apps, best websites, and the SAMR model. Teacher Librarian, 41(2), 16.
Jenkins, H. (2010). Transmedia education: The 7 principles revisited (weblog). In.
Jude, L. T., Kajura, M. A., & Birevu, M. P. (2014). Adoption of the SAMR model to asses ICT pedagogical adoption: A case of Makerere University. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 4(2), 106.
Lamb, A. (2011). Reading Redefined for a Transmedia Universe. Learning and leading with technology., 39(3), 12.
Puentedura, R. (2010). SAMR and TPCK: Intro to advanced practice. Retrieved February, 12, 2013.
Rosenthal, A. K. (2015). Inquiry Topic Resources for Resilience. Inquiry.
Scott Davis, G. (2012). Dandelion Protein One Pty Ltd.